原标题:饶毅致信美利哥科学技术老总:化学家应该有脊梁

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XU TIAN embodies the American dream to an extent that many of his fellow
Americans might well envy.

Do you know how fast does a high-speed train run? 

(原标题:饶毅致信U.S.科技(science and technology)领导:地教育学家应该有脊梁)

Xin Jin

So what is he doing in China?

Do you know the speed of an airplane? 

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By Kevin Holden Dec. 16, 2016 , 9:00 AM

Part of the answer lies here, on the sprawling grounds of a former
military airfield. It is the new campus of Fudan University in Shanghai,
mammoth ersatz-Roman classroom buildings erupting from the flatland the
way American land-grant universities sprouted classrooms in their salad
days, 50 to 60 years ago. Here is a gigantic new law school. Over there
is a hulking biosciences building.

Now my colleagues are working on designing high-speed-rail whose speed
will be 1000 kilometers per hour! 

撰文 | 饶 毅

When China’s leaders decided a generation ago to experiment with opening
the People’s Republic to global market forces, they created an
archipelago of special economic zones (SEZs) along the nation’s southern
coast. South China’s resulting transformation into an export powerhouse
has helped make the country a world trade titan. Now the region is part
of a new round of reforms aimed at reshaping China into a globally
connected pioneer in the sciences. China’s universities, along with the
National Natural Science Foundation and the Chinese Academy of Sciences
(CAS), have created award schemes aimed at attracting scientists trained
in the United States or Europe to take positions across southern China
and to help spur the next stage of the region’s metamorphosis. These
strategies are helping power research breakthroughs in the spheres of
space science, physics, genomics, and medicine.

And here, Dr. Xu said, are his two homes for lab rats.

Back in 1896, China lagged behind in railway design, and there was no
Chinese railway engineer at that point. 

美利坚合众国华盛顿特区

From rice paddies to space stations

“There are 20,000 cages here,” he said, almost nonchalantly. “That one
over there has 25,000. Each one holds a maximum of four or five
animals.”

Over one century has passed, his proposal has become one of China’s
leading centers of engineering education. It was also the second oldest
institution of higher education in the history of China. It is the
engine of Chinese high-speed rail.

官办健康钻探 院(NIH)司长

The drive to transmute the country’s burgeoning economic might into
scientific prowess is evident across southern China. Shenzhen,
crisscrossed by rice paddies when it was designated an SEZ, is now one
of the world’s fastest growing cities and hosts one of China’s leading
genomics outfits. Similarly, the tropical island of Hainan, ringed by
fishing villages when it too became an SEZ, opened its new space launch
center this summer. Thousands of visitors watched the premier liftoff of
the new Long March 7 rocket, along with the prototype of a
next-generation human space capsule that it carried into orbit. CAS
leaders say spaceflight is a high-priority sector for heightened
international cooperation. China recently signed an agreement with the
United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, outlining Beijing’s
pledge “to enable United Nations member states, particularly developing
countries, to conduct space experiments onboard China’s space station,
as well as to provide flight opportunities for astronauts and payload
engineers.” CAS is stepping up its twin drives to boost collaboration on
transborder science projects and to increase its standing in worldwide
science. One area in which it has made headway is in studies
encompassing the formation of the universe, the earliest galaxies, and
the solar system. Planetary scientist Yuan Li, a postdoctoral researcher
at Rice University in Houston, says he was persuaded to accept a
position at the CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry through a Global
Youth Experts award. Li is the lead author of a recent Nature Geoscience
study, cowritten with colleagues at Rice, which posited that the
life-enabling carbon in the Earth’s crust might be the result of a
collision between the proto-Earth and a Mercury-like planet about 4.4
billion years ago. That collision was distinct from the interplanetary
smashup that scientists believe gave birth to the Moon during the early
formation of the solar system. “During the accretion of our Earth, there
were probably numerous collisions between the proto-Earth and small
planetary embryos,” says Li. This early period in the solar system’s
evolution, he adds, might have resembled a massive billiards game
involving the inner protoplanets crashing into each other before
entering stabilized orbits around the sun. Li’s paper is part of a
steady rise of articles written by Chinese scholars and published in the
world’s leading academic journals. He says China’s expanding
constellation of incentives for scientists is a powerful attraction for
scholars trained in the West. “In the past five years, thousands of
young scientists like me have returned to China,” he says.

Dr. Xu is a world-class geneticist. A Yale professor and one of roughly
340 American scientists endowed by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute
to pursue their wildest research desires, he seeks a holy grail: the key
to what makes a mouse tick, gene by gene by gene. The implications for
human health are profound, as the mouse and human genomes are
substantially the same.

What makes us different?

Francis Collins经济学大学生、医学大学生

Particle physics breakthroughs

At Yale, he devised a process that allows mass production of genetically
altered mice, an important step toward decoding the genome. At Fudan, he
perfected it, and he is putting it to work at laboratories that hold one
of the world’s largest collections of test animals. Soon, the new campus
will sprout another building in the neo-Classical style: the Fudan
Institute of Developmental Biology and Molecular Medicine, of which Dr.
Xu is a co-director.

(1) Cities ofculture and Nature

贴心的Collins硕士:

China is interested not only in the macroworld, it is also keen on the
microworld. Scientists with an advanced degree in physics who have
accepted positions at south China universities are helping track and
explain how neutrinos morph into different types, or generations, as
they fly through space at nearly the speed of light. These physicists
have joined an international team of scientists who are studying nuclear
reactor–produced neutrinos in the southern Chinese seaside resort of
Daya Bay. Collaboration on these experiments involves universities and
physicists stretching across four continents, says Kam-Biu Luk, a
professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, and a
distinguished visiting scholar at the University of Hong Kong. Luk, who
heads the international participation in the project, says this
exploration of the long-shrouded world of neutrinos is one of the most
outstanding experiments in particle physics ever conducted by joint
groups of universities based in China and the United States. Physicists
at the University of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong Kong,
Shenzhen University, Dongguan University of Technology, and Sun Yat-sen
University have joined counterparts at Yale, Princeton, and other
laboratories in this expanding experiment. Chinese scientists involved
in these neutrino observations, along with the international team headed
by Luk, were awarded the prestigious Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental
Physics in 2016, for outlining how neutrinos transform as they speed
through the cosmos. They won, according to the prize citation, for
“revealing a new frontier beyond, and possibly far beyond, the standard
model of particle physics.” Due to the rapidly growing neutrino physics
programs in China, Jiajie Ling, a postdoctoral researcher at the
University of Illinois who is now a professor in physics at Sun Yat-sen
University, opted to take a position there with start-up funding support
from the Thousand Talents Program for Distinguished Young Scholars. He
is helping to guide a new series of experiments at Daya Bay: the search
for the hypothesized “sterile neutrino.” This proposed fourth type of
neutrino could be a form of the elusive dark matter that scientists have
been searching for since the last century, says Ling.

The Chinese government built them all, gratis.

We have tree campus, based in two cities—Chengdu and the Emei.

你受到尊重,因为您是商量人类疾病基因变化高人一等的物文学家,也是令人侧重的、大旨为“探求生命系统本质和行为平素文化、用于加强健康、延长生命、减弱疾病”的国营健康钻探院(NIH)的委员长。

Future home of particle colliders

In a sense, Yale and the Hughes Institute have outsourced the genome
project to a place where labs are built quicker and more cheaply —
“China speed,” Dr. Xu said, half-jokingly — and where talented young
scientists work for a pittance.

Chengdu is home to pandas and hotpots and Sichuan Cuisine.

人们欢呼NIH为校对U.S.平民和全人类的平常所作出的贡献。其守旧和正式接轨了全人类的文静,而希腊共和国、印度、中夏族民共和国的古时候文化都曾对人类文明有所贡献。

According to Ling, the massive neutrino study he is working on is
helping China move closer to realizing its plans to host an
international coalition of elite physicists around its proposed
supercollider projects. China’s top-echelon physicists, in tandem with
leading scientists worldwide, are designing a ringed particle smasher
measuring up to 100 kilometers in circumference that would initially be
configured as an electron–positron collider, and would later also host a
proton–proton accelerator. “After so many years of preparation and
joining world-wide experiments, now is a fantastic time for China to
host the Circular Electron–Positron Collider and the Super Proton–Proton
Collider,” Ling says. “More importantly, it is also China’s
responsibility to contribute to advancing high-energy physics and
humanity’s knowledge about the universe.” Jie Gao, one of the leaders of
the twin circular collider projects at the CAS Institute of High Energy
Physics, says southern Guangdong Province is a leading contender to host
the ringed accelerators. Chinese and American scientists who are laying
the groundwork for what would be the largest and most sophisticated
particle physics lab in history predict it could attract thousands of
the world’s experimental physicists to take up positions in China’s
planned “collider city.” Alain Blondel, one of the primary shapers of
the Future Circular Collider being mapped out by CERN (the European
Organization for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland, says “it would be
fantastic” if the leaders of CERN and of the Chinese supercollider
program wind up competing to attract the globe’s foremost physicists.
Tao Liu, a physicist at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,
echoes this sentiment. He says China’s planned collider project is the
most exciting ever to capture the attention of leading physics
professors and science students across Hong Kong. The supercolliders,
Liu adds, will “boost development in science and society in the coming
decades, [and] will inspire young talents of this and future
generations to devote themselves to the exploration of basic science.”

“Realistically, with the flatlined budget in science, one can imagine
he’d have to spend six times the money he’s spending in China” to
duplicate the labs in the United States, said Jack E. Dixon, the Hughes
Institute’s vice president and chief scientific officer. “It’s probably
just not possible in the United States to do that on the scale that he
wants to do it.”

Emei, is a city listed in UNESCO cultural heritage and naturalheritage.
The campus is right at the foot of the mountain.

智力商数传承在国家里面交换了非常短日子。西方从中国念书了造纸术、指南针、火药和权益印刷,美利坚联邦合众国从澳国上学了好多。

Mining the genome

Dr. Xu now leaves Yale for Shanghai about three months a year. Other
American scientists of Chinese descent are moving for good, lured by a
lavishly financed government campaign that offers foreign scientists
ample money and a chance to make waves in what is still a small research
pond.

No university in China boast such great cities and great natures.

物管理学家不能够屈服于政治职员

Just across the border from Hong Kong, universities and the local
government in Shenzhen are channeling their expanding funds into making
globally recognized advances in life science research and applications.
“Shenzhen has repositioned itself as one of the world’s leading centers
for genetics research,” says Bicheng Yang, communications director at
the genomics outfit BGI, which is moving forward with plans to create a
specialized life science college in partnership with the South China
University of Technology (SCUT) and the University of Copenhagen. Four
years ago, BGI signed a cooperation pact with the Gates Foundation to
set up joint training programs with the University of the Chinese
Academy of Sciences and SCUT. “The aim is to integrate the new college
more and more into scientific research that stretches across the
continents,” she explains. Xin Jin, a genomics expert with dual research
positions at BGI and at the SCUT, says, “One of the most exciting
projects we are working on is the Chinese Million-ome Project, aimed at
decoding one million Chinese genomes across the entire country.” The
university and BGI are also exploring the use of genomics to map the
genetic evolution of current populations dating back to the early modern
humans who trekked to Asia more than 40,000 years ago, and their
admixture with more archaic species, adds Jin, who coauthored a study on
this topic published in Nature.

BUT were money the only issue, Dr. Xu might not be here. For while he is
a thoroughly naturalized American, Shanghai and Fudan are where he was
born, and where he ultimately found his calling. He left China for the
United States 27 years ago, chasing a dream he thought unattainable
here.

(2) International Community

你四月十一日所谓美利哥生物医研面临劫持的信令人震惊,因为那是和平日期第3遍政坛老董限制科学调换。

At the frontier of human genome editing

Dr. Xu does not want China’s young scientists to be denied their dreams,
and not every aspiring Chinese scientist is lucky enough to make it to
Yale.

The English websites of the university, international office and
all the schools is a window to the university, gibing a panoramic view
of what is happening in the university and beyond. Particularly, the
international office website introduces policies and programs that
support international students in the campus community.

物医学家应该有脊梁,London时报。而如《科学匈牙利人》以下报导的内容更骇人据他们说:“Collins致信约三万个接受NIH接济的部门,鼓励它们与联邦调查局(FBI)地区办公室开会,钻探对于文化产权的威逼和别国干涉”。整个人类历史上,一贯没有1个地农学家约请过类似FBI的部门监测“海外干涉”。有个别政府那样做过,但不是因为总领物工学家或担任领导职分的地工学家发起。即便在苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟最白灰的时日,总领地工学家也有脊梁做反而的:物医学家卡皮查营救了她的学生朗道,后者在斯大林权力(和恐怖)顶峰一时半刻被调查反斯大林行为。

The potential use of genomic engineering to eradicate the genetic bases
for diseases is also being explored by groups of university researchers
in the southern mega-city of Guangzhou. One of these groups recently
reported conducting a leading-edge experiment, but with only limited
success, in editing the genomes of human embryos to confer genetic
resistance to HIV infections. A similar paper published in 2015 by
researchers at Sun Yat-sen University ignited a global debate over
whether this type of research should be conducted on human embryos
because of its potential to trigger genetic changes that ripple across
future generations. Since then, leaders of the national science
academies in the United States, the United Kingdom, and China have met
and reached a consensus that while this type of research could continue,
any applications should be prohibited. The lead organizer of the summit
involving the three science academies was David Baltimore, president
emeritus of the California Institute of Technology. He adds that Chinese
researchers can move forward with embryonic genome editing studies as
long as “experiments are limited to 14 days of in vitro growth and no
implantation is attempted.” The genomics teams at Sun Yat-sen University
and at Guangzhou Medical University, says Baltimore, represent “an
effort of two labs to move into the forefront of the research.” Some
scholars suggest that China’s support for these studies, in view of the
U.S. Congressional ban on federal funding for research involving
modifying the genomes of human embryos, could help scientists across
Chinese universities move ahead in this realm of gene editing.

“This has made students realize it’s possible to do first-class research
in China,” he said in a long interview at his spartan Fudan office, one
wall covered by a scribble-filled whiteboard. “That’s a very important
change in the mind-set. It makes them more willing to take on high-risk
projects and ask big questions.”

International Students Cultural Festival.The festivities commence
with a speech by VC andexhibitions on cultures of students’ home
countries and a grand musicalfestival.

从而,你的信和你鼓励FBI调查的行走,大大偏离了科学实践的保险套。

Reversing “brain drain”

Dr. Xu’s own rise was a matter of luck — and boundless ambition. He was
born in 1962 in Jiaxing, about 50 miles southwest of Shanghai, to a
onetime college literature professor and his wife, a union leader at a
silk factory. Reviled for his educated status during the Cultural
Revolution, Dr. Xu’s father was sent to a labor camp; his mother was
publicly persecuted. In middle school, Dr. Xu suffered daily criticism.

*A variety of tours and trips **to famous attractions all over the
country will be an eye-opening experience for all our
international students.*

几年前,你在东京公然称:科学没有国界,因为它属于人类。

In another region of south China, at the Guangdong University of Foreign
Studies, Jing Yang has been conducting research with colleagues at
Pennsylvania State University on structural changes in the brain that
occur when students begin studying a second language. Yang, formerly a
postdoctoral fellow at Penn State, says she joined Guangdong University
of Foreign Studies because the school “is well known for cultivating
international talent.” She says she aims to help transform the
university’s language center into “a leading research center for
linguistics and applied linguistics,” and adds that the government is
providing large-scale grant support to reach that goal. China’s economic
ascent and the increasingly attractive recruitment packages offered by
its universities are becoming extremely appealing to Chinese scholars
who have studied in the West, Yang says, and are beginning to help
reverse a decades-long brain drain, during which scholars left the
country to pursue their careers elsewhere. While many Chinese scientists
still opt to stay in Europe or the United States after obtaining an
advanced degree there, Yang observes that “some scholars, like me, chose
to go home to work for a brighter future for ourselves and also for our
country.” These scholars, she adds, are helping create clusters of
excellent scientific research across China. “The rise of China
definitely is not limited to the economy,” Yang explains. “We hope our
country can excel in science, culture, and technology too. It is a
double win for China and the world.”

“I was really full of anger,” he said. “The school principal would come
to me and say: ‘How come you are in school? We aren’t supposed to
educate people like you. You’re the kind we punish.’ ” The principal had
studied under Dr. Xu’s father in college.

(3) English and Chinese Courses

那句话被周边翻译,人们交口表扬。

When the Cultural Revolution ended, he enrolled at Fudan. Determined to
avoid being labeled an elitist, he chose the most obscure major he could
find. Fudan’s genetics department, the only one in China, was led by C.
C. Tan, a brilliant scholar educated in the United States.

The University offers many English-taught courses in different
disciplines for international students. Please do not worry the language
problems.

真理就是真理。无法因为政治领导人或律师说的例外,地教育学家就转头真理。

Dr. Xu became his protégé, and he graduated with honors, eventually
winning a stipend in 1983 to attend City College of New York. Broke and
barely able to speak English, he lived with fellow students in an
abandoned house on 140th Street in Harlem, subsisting on bread and
bananas.

If you want to learn Chinese, don’t worry, we have School of
International Education, and we have students language partners to
practice with you.

是的的一定和物艺术学家的德性勇气

In his first week, Dr. Xu was mugged at knifepoint. “In the Cultural
Revolution, I go through a lot of hardships, so that’s O.K.,” he said.

 (4) Frist-class subjects

科学是平素的;而政治,尤其是今日美利坚联邦合众国正值执行的那种,是不久的。历史表明,劣质政治会灭亡,正如苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟和纳粹德意志联邦共和国所验证的。

But he quickly discovered that City College lacked money to finance his
real love, laboratory research. So after fruitlessly scouring New York
for another scholarship, he took a train to New Haven to plead his case
at Yale, where he won a fellowship despite his poor English and lack of
credentials, like graduate exam scores.

Looking back, the university has created loads of “No.1”s in China and
even in the world. For instance,the first railway designed by
Chinese, the first electric locomotive in China, the first planar
and curved suspension bridge in the world.

笔者可怜超越六分之三U.S.化学家,你们固然被感化——也平时自认为——道德正直,其实平常不熟习历史,不懂什么处理如纳粹德意志或苏维埃社会主义共和国结盟那种邪恶政治压力。

After postdoctoral work on fruit-fly genetics at the University of
California, Berkeley, he returned to the Yale School of Medicine. In
1996, he pitched a radical idea to the Hughes Institute: breeding
genetically altered mice with the ease that scientists produced
mutations in fast-breeding fruit flies.

At present, our materials science, engineering and computer science are
TOP 1% in the world.

附属类小部件推荐一篇文章(“The Singular Moral Compass of 奥托Krayer”),记叙一个人酒花之国药历史学家,在其事业早期,他不肯接任因纳粹开除犹太地文学家而空出的系主管职位。他得以接受这一职位,不因社会之恶而责怪本人,但他在一齐预知对团结事业的祸害景况下,写信拒绝下车。此后他被纳粹禁止任学术职位、连体育场面都不可能用。他被迫离开德意志联邦共和国不是因为他是犹太人,而是因为她敢于申张正义、声讨罪恶。

The first scientist who produced genetically altered mice won the 2007
Nobel Prize in Medicine. But breeding mutant mice was a laborious,
one-mouse-at-a-time process. A decade of trial and error rewarded Dr. Xu
with the jackpot: a butterfly gene, nicknamed piggyBac, that could
insert itself into the mouse genome, randomly turning off one gene per
mouse.

(5) International DNA

最终受纳粹和斯大林主义损害最大的是德意志和俄联邦。希特勒上台在此以前,德意志在数学、物理、化学和您协调查研商究的遗传学专业都远远超越,之后德国不利再也没达到那时的档次。

Until then, scientists had charted the mouse genome but had scant idea
what each gene actually did. Dr. Xu’s innovation allowed them to find
out by examining mouse genes on a vast scale.

At the beginning of the establishment, the university delivered all
courses in English. Now in the age of globalization,the university
attaches more importance on internationalization.

正史能够重复,要是大家不从过去得出教训,固然是任何国家的教训。

In the five years since the piggyBac gene was disclosed, researchers
worldwide have decoded more of the mouse genome than had been deciphered
in the preceding 20 years. Dr. Xu and other scientists using his
technique are now looking for genes that govern behavior, nutrition,
instinct, predisposition to diseases and other basics. Just one
discovery — a gene regulating the molecule that controls digestion in
mice — potentially opens the door to simple treatments that could end
not only obesity but malnutrition as well, he said.

1100 international students from countries. 

昨天川普主义盛行的美利坚联邦合众国,对荷兰人,包涵U.S.物管理学家,都以考验的天天。

THE report of Dr. Xu’s achievement at Fudan, published in August 2005 in
the prestigious scientific journal Cell, was the first time that
China-based research had produced a cover story.

In collaboration with 190 universities of countries and regions

时下,川普主义对正确的首要威吓而是是压缩预算,与事业被毁、生命被灭还不可能对照。但如此下滑,大家怎么精通,在许多学员是外人、一批教师也是意大利人的景况下,有怎样能够阻碍竞争的实验室之间不去互相举报“国外影响“?未来的不利探究,需求分成“美国”和“外国”吗?科学学会的年度会议,应该驳回“国外影响”吗?NIH帮衬的美利坚联邦合众国境内和国际会议,应该请FBI来监督吗?

In that sense, Dr. Xu’s victory is a cautionary tale for American policy
makers.

Statistics given by the US’s International Institute of Education shows
that, China has become the destination country for international
students. With more much favorable polices for international talents put
into place, we are open to you. Engineer better future, together with
us.

最近是U.S.A.物农学家展现自身脊梁的每日。

Dr. Robert J. Alpern, the dean of Yale’s medical school, said that China
leaped at the chance to host Dr. Xu’s project when the American
scientific establishment, asked several times to finance Dr. Xu’s work,
demurred. “They were clearly trying to make an entrance into science,
and they were excited by Tian and this project,” Dr. Alpern said. “They
felt Tian would lift China and science. And I think that’s true.”

化学家及其采取援救的随意

Science is not a zero-sum game — even when the competition is trying to
poach your stars, said Dr. Dixon of the Hughes Institute. World-class
research benefits all humanity, regardless of where it originates.

拥有化学家都有取舍其行事地方的即兴,有取舍他们认为适用的协作对象的妄动。

“Some Chinese labs are in fact very competitive with U.S. laboratories
now,” Dr. Dixon said. “And in a way, that’s what you hope to see — that
they would excel. I don’t view this as an arms race of any sort.”

毋庸置疑商量能够被此外合法接济机构所帮助。政坛单位是大地帮衬科学的第2源于,那是大家接受的现实性。每一种物艺术学家接受四个来自的捐助也没有是难点,尽管接济来源于二国。

Dr. Alpern agrees. “The key to success in the United States is
strengthening the American enterprise, not trying to slow down another
country,” he said.

就在二〇一六年,你本身老董的NIH与中华的国家自然科学基金会(NSFC)发布共同协理美中生物历史学同盟项目(

Dr. Xu goes a step further. His work at Fudan is a boon for the United
States, he said, because it promotes the transparency and freedom from
government interference that are hallmarks of American research.

因为政党科学基金机构都不享有色金属商量所究经费帮助的切磋所带来的专利或其余智慧产权,保护专利、合营时创建分配专利完全不在NIH的管辖范围。事实上,30年来,NIH都帮衬了在中夏族民共和国境内的研讨。那几个中华研讨人士本来都有中华机关的经费。难道你要说那几个钻探人口表示海外影响?而且他们具有的文化产权属于其单位,中国和U.S.的内阁资本都不可能有所其学问产权,所以由NIH争知识产权是故弄玄虚的。绝当先二分之一切磋并不能够发出很有价值的学识产权。如若个别钻探人口并未填报多重来源,可是是私家瑕疵,你10月30日声称称那种难题为“海外干涉”完全是多此一举。

And it takes a small step toward debunking the notion, widespread among
ordinary Chinese and government officials alike, that the United States
is bent on thwarting China’s ascension to global power.

即使在美利坚联邦合众国落地前,中华夏族民共和国在经济上超越世界,但在U.S.存在的那些年中华的经济相对贫困,长时间难以承受科学经费。现在中中原人民共和国援救科学,既为中华夏族民共和国提升,也为世界做进献。中夏族民共和国接济纯数学和天法学,它们短时间不会给另海外家带来经济便宜,大概永远不可能。NIH本身宣称的指标也不是发生经济回报,这是3个不可能因为情人眼里出西施就足以变更的真实情况。所以,生物医研一般不应该带来差异国度、不一致政坛时期的争论。

“Chinese society is deeply suspicious of the West’s intentions,” Dr. Xu
said. “That’s why some behavior is ultranationalistic. To integrate
China into the international society will be fantastic. It will be great
for the world, great for China — great for everybody.”

您的德行传承

你的院校维吉妮亚高校的创始者汤玛斯·杰斐逊,既是智商巨人,也是任意的旗手。假设她前几日活着,他会为您的扬言或行动鼓掌吗

你在北卡罗来纳教堂山分校大学的切磋导师,来自一个有远大才华的文化,但在天堂碰到本身制作的标题标时候常把她们作为替罪羊。犹太人日常被伤害,时而公开而凶恶,时如蒙有面纱但也严酷。你五月1日的评释的确针对中原人地教育学家,如同要在美利坚联邦合众国反智非理性的风潮中用中中原人民共和国人代表犹太人做新的替罪羊。

澳门金沙4787.com官网,任由合营照旧竞争,徐立之博士于1979时期在发现囊性纤维化罹患基因的历程中,起了最首要功能,你也为此共享成果。一九七七年份,中中原人民共和国还穷,无法提供经济支撑。如若那在昨天发出,有或者徐大学生也会拿走中国的支撑。你会电话要FBI调查他吗?

假若八个经费机构决定都投入财富支持值得匡助的商量,应该欢迎,而不是检察。

简单易行的提议

逝世的麦肯恩参议员曾说:“小编希望认为在最费力的时刻,笔者做了对的事情,可是你不可能知道,除非你被考验”。

明天只怕是从那之后以来对超过57%美利哥化学家最困难考验的天天,尤其是对那几个在总管职位的人来说。但愿不会变得更费力。

其它愿意充当你六月2日建议的军师委员会之成员的物工学家,都将染上道德污点。这一委员会应当被遣散。你的信应该撤回。

U.S.物教育学家会“做对的事情”吗?至少不心服口服、主动做错的事体?历史将记录米国物管理学家能不能够经受人格和荣誉的着实考验。

梦想有更加多国际合营

生物历史学是拓展国际调换与同盟最简单的圈子,因为它与大军非亲非故,而又对全人类有普适价值。

中华在积极酝酿起首中炎黄子孙民共和国脑布置、美利坚同盟友NIH已经有脑安插。中国感兴趣协助脑商讨的国际合营,部分缘故是带动有益世界各国国民的钻研,部分缘由是当今中国不如从前那么穷之后,努力为全人类共同目的付出中华人民共和国的一分。

在那种转化点,NIH应该抛弃与FBI的通力同盟、或自降得体地散布“国外干部涉”的可怕传言,改弦更张,拥抱全体扶助生物经济学的国度。

中华有长远欣赏智力贡献的守旧,但我们的不错未遂大家应有做的品位。为了变成世界有职责的成员,中华夏族民共和国现行反革命进步对正确的支持。应该欢迎全体扶助科学的国度。借使有竞争,应该如奥运一样。

生物医研的名堂为全人类所共享;科学是推进区别国度人民之间互相掌握的重点桥梁之一。

诚挚的,

饶毅, 法学大学生

北大-IDG/麦戈文脑切磋所助教、所长

北宣城学部集团主

日本东京脑主题领导

注1:Truth is truth,源自二〇一八年7月美国总理的律师RudyGiuliani在接受电视机访谈时称“truth isn’t truth”, 被反驳。

注2:“事实是情人眼里出西施”,认为事实也不是实际,而是因观望者而异。英文“情人眼里出西施”为“beauty
is in the eyes of the beholder”。在同样电视访谈中,Giuliani称“facts are
in the eyes of the beholder”。

注3:Collins本科念维吉妮亚高校,其创始人为美利坚同盟军第壹任总理杰斐逊。Collins的大学生导师为耶路撒冷希伯来大学教书、犹太移民后代。Collins最重大的钻研为克隆囊性纤维化(cystic
fibrosis)的罹患基因,这一干活最根本的物艺术学家是香江旅加拿大唐人学者徐立之,徐后来曾担任香港大高校长。

澳门金沙4787.com官网 3

Francis Collins, M.D., Ph.D.

Director

The National Institutes of Health

Washington, DC

USA

Dear Dr. Collins,

You are highly respected as a scientist who has carried out outstanding
research on genetic mutations underlying human diseases, and as a leader
of the NIH whose mission “is to seek fundamental knowledge about the
nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that
knowledge to enhance health, lengthen life, and reduce illness and
disability”.

NIH is lauded for its contributions to improving the health of
Americans, as well as the health of the humankind. Its tradition and
standards are the heritage of human civilizations, to which ancient
cultures from the Greek, the Indian, and the Chinese have all
contributed.

Intellectual legacy and heritage have been exchanged internationally for
a long time. The West has learned about paper manufacturing, the
compass, the gunpowder, and printing from China. The US has learned much
from Europe.

Scientists with Spines Do Not Bend to Politicians

Your August 20th statement is shocking because it is the first time when
any government official has issued a statement restricting scientific
collaborations in peacetime.

Furthermore, the following, as reported in Scientific American is
appalling: “Collins also wrote to roughly 10,000 NIH grant institutions
encouraging them to set up briefings with FBI field offices about
threats to intellectual property and foreign interference.” No SCIENTIST
in the entire history of humankind has asked FBI equivalents to monitor
“foreign interference”. Some governments have done so, but not at the
initiation of leading scientists or scientists in leadership positions.
Even in the worst times of the Soviet Union, leading scientists had the
spine to do the opposite: the physicist Pyotr Kapitsa rescued his
student Lev Landau when the latter was investigated for anti-Stalin
activities in the peak of Stalin’s power (and terror).

Your letter and your action of encouraging FBI collaborations are thus
extraordinary deviations from the normal practice of science.

You publicly stated a few years ago in Shanghai: science has no national
boundaries because it belongs to the humankind. This was translated and
widely applauded.

Dr. Collins: what you said then is the truth.

Truth is truth. No scientist can bend the truth just because political
leaders or lawyers say otherwise.

The Eternality of Science and the Moral Courage of Scientists

Science is eternal, whereas politics, as the kind practiced in the
present day US, is transient. History has proved that bad politics
perish, as in the cases of the Soviet Union, and Nazi Germany. The
Trumpism US will be an exception only if the Sun rises from the West in
the future.

I am sympathetic that most US scientists, while always taught, and often
self-assumed, to be morally upright, usually do not understand history
and do not know how to deal with political pressures of the evil nature,
such as those in Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union.

Attached please find an article (“The Singular Moral Compass of Otto
Krayer”) about a German pharmacologist, who, while in his early budding
career, refused to take up a chairmanship opened up by Nazi firing of a
Jewish scientist. While he could have accepted the position, without
blaming himself for societal ills, Krayer wrote a letter of refusal,
fully anticipating damages to his own career. He was thereafter barred
from all academic jobs and even the use of libraries in Germany. He had
to leave Germany, not because he was Jewish, but because he stood up for
what was right and against what was wrong.

In the end, Nazism and Stalinism had damaged Germany and Russia the
most. Germany, which was leading in mathematics, physics, chemistry and
your own field of genetics before Hitler, has never been able to regain
its scientific strength to the level reached before Nazism.

History can repeat itself if we do not learn from the past, even if the
past was in other countries.

With Trumpism presently prevalent in the US, it is a testing time for
many Americans including American scientists.

At this point, Trumpism in the US can mainly threaten science with
reduction of budgets, nothing compared to careers ruined or lives
destroyed. If allowed to go on the slippery road, how do we know that
competing labs will not report on each other for foreign interferences
or influences when a large number of students and a significant number
of faculty members are foreign-born Should future discussions of science
be separated into “American” and “Foreign” Should future classrooms,
meeting rooms, etc., be similarly separated Should annual meetings of
academic societies and associations refuse to have “foreign influences”
Should NIH funded domestic and international meetings be monitored by
the FBI

It is time for American scientists to show their spines.

Freedom of Scientists and Their Choices of Support

All scientists have the right to work wherever they choose, and the
freedom to collaborate with whomever they deem appropriate.

Scientific research can be supported by any legitimate funding agency,
most of which are governmental across the entire world. Funding of
individual scientists by multiple sources is not an issue of concern,
even when funding comes from different countries.

As recent as 2015, your own NIH and the National Natural Science
Foundation of China (NSFC) announced the U.S.-China Program for
Biomedical Collaborative Research (R01)
(). So,
the statement in your August 20th letter that “NIH is aware that some
foreign entities have mounted systematic programs to influence NIH
researchers and peer reviewers” is a total lie unless you are implying
that the NIH is an initiating and active partner in such a conspiracy.
This is clearly targeting China because Russia can barely fund its
science, Europe and Japan have not launched any new programs. China has
launched new programs to recruit scientists, regardless of national
origin but most are scientists of Chinese origin because of linguistic
and cultural differences. China has not tried to influence NIH
researchers or peer reviewers. The “Thousand Talent Program” is to
recruit more scientists, not to influence any other country. NIH is
shameless in distorting the truth. Any and every country has the right
to recruitment. The world should welcome more and more countries to
invest in science and support scientists because science serves the
entire world.

Because no government agency for science funding holds patents or other
intellectual properties resulting from research supported by their
grants, it is completely outside the scope of the NIH but in the realm
of institutions to protect their intellectual properties (IP) and to
assign proper rights to the collaborators in cases of collaborations.
NIH has funded researchers in China for more than 30 years. Naturally,
all those supported by the NIH also have grants from Chinese funding
agencies. Are you going to say that all these investigators represent
foreign influences Furthermore, all their IPs belong to their
institutions. It is hypocritical for the NIH to argue about IPs when
neither the Chinese nor the US government funding agencies are involved
in IPs. The vast majority of grants never lead to valuable IPs. If a few
researchers fail to report multiple sources, it is but a small fault of
an individual with minor consequences, which was blown out of proportion
by your August 20th statement as foreign interferences.

China, having led the world economically before the birth of the US, was
relatively poor economically and could not afford to fund science for
most of the time when the US has been in existence. China is now capable
of funding science, both for the development of China and as a
contribution to the world. China funds pure mathematics and astronomy,
which are not expected to generate any economic benefits for any
particular country in a short time, if ever. The stated mission of the
NIH is not to generate economic benefits, either, a fact that should not
change in the eyes of the beholder. Thus funding for most of the
biomedical sciences should not be a source of conflict between different
countries.

Your Conscientious Heritage

Thomas Jefferson, the founder of your alma mater the University of
Virginia, was an intellectual giant, and a champion for freedom. Had he
been alive today, would he applaud your letter or action

Your own research advisor at Yale came from a culture of great talents
which were made scapegoats whenever Westerners run into troubles of
their own making. The Jewish people were often persecuted, sometimes
blatantly and sometimes in a thinly veiled manner. Your August 20th
letter is obviously targeting scientists of Chinese origin, making
Chinese as the new scapegoat of anti-intellectual irrationality in the
US.

Whether collaborating or competing, Dr. Lap-Chee Tsui played an
important role in the success of discovering the cystic fibrosis
susceptibility gene in the 1980s, for which you shared the credit. In
the 1980s, China was poor and could not offer financial support. Had the
same happened today, it is possible that Dr. Tsui would also receive
support from China. Would you call the FBI to investigate him

If funding agencies decide to pool in resources for worthy research,
that should be welcome, not investigated.

Simple Suggestions

The late John McCain once remarked: “I like to think that in the
toughest moments I’d do the right thing, but you never know until you
are tested”.

This is certainly the toughest moment so far for most American
scientists, especially those in leadership positions. One can only wish
that it would not get any tougher.

Any scientist willing to serve on the Advisory Committee stipulated in
your August 10th letter will be morally tainted. The Committee should be
disbanded. The letter should be retracted.

Will leading American scientists do the right thing, or at least not
willingly and proactively do the wrong thing History will remember how
American scientists stand a true test of character and honor.

Hope for More International Collaborations

Because it is not related to the military and because of its universal
values to the humankind, international exchanges and collaborations are
the easiest in the biomedical sciences.

China is actively planning to start the Chinese Brain Initiative. The US
NIH already has a Brain Initiative. China is interested in supporting
international collaborations in brain research, partly to promote
research that will benefit people of all countries, partly as an effort
to pay our share for common goal snow that China is not as poor as
before.

At such junctures, NIH should discard short-sighted collaborations with
the FBI or self-degrading fear-mongering of “foreign interferences”, and
instead embrace efforts by all countries to support biomedical research.

China has a long tradition of valuing intellectual contributions, but
our science has not been as good as it should. To become a responsible
member of the world, China is now increasing its support in the
sciences. All countries should be welcome for their support of science.
If there are competitions, the Olympic Games have shown us how to
compete.

Fruits of biomedical research will be enjoyed by all humans; science
will remain a major bridge of mutual understanding between people of
different countries and cultures.

Sincerely yours,

Yi Rao, Ph.D.

Professor and Director, PKU-IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research

Dean, Division of Sciences, Peking University

Director, Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing

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