原标题:【国际】泰国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外国资本费

本期原版的书文选自The Economist 2017-02-25的小说Clean energy’s dirty
secret,释义来自加州圣地亚哥分校高阶七版、有道词典等能源。假使你也在上学The
Economist,欢迎订阅作者的文集The
Economist,1起学学交换。

翻译按:任何3个行当的变革都会惨遭既有势力的阻碍。读完本文,你将精晓到干净财富为啥无法及时取代旧财富的多个原因,以及只怕的解决方案——政党的涉企和调节和测试。
正文译自《管教育学人》二月贰三二十八日刊。

By ANGUS McNEICE | China Daily | Updated: 2017-10-05 17:44

泰国领导起草的新法律要求向使用区块链技术的电力生产商收取额外国资本费。

Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables【1】 revolution is wrecking【2】 the
world’s electricity markets. Here’s what to do

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Solar power projects, such as this one shaped like giant pandas in
Datong, Shanxi province, are now a common sight.

据《日经信息澳洲评论》报导,泰王国发电局(EGAT)务求开发那笔开支作为区块链技术带来的秘密影响的津贴。

【一】renewables 可再生能源

法学人封面

今后,类似于图中的广西南开学同的大竹熊形状的太阳能发电类型已经很普遍了。

ERC成员Viraphol Jirapraditkul表示:

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Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables revolution is wrecking the world’s electricity markets.
Here’s what to do

  1. ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells and wind turbines
    were invented, they still generate only 7% of the world’s
    electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
    peripheral to
    the energy system just over a decade ago, they are
    now growing faster than any other energy source and their falling
    costs are making them competitive with fossil fuels. BP, an oil
    firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
    energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer far-fetched
    to think
    that the world is entering an era of clean, unlimited and
    cheap power. About time, too.

being peripheral to: not as important as other things or people in
a particular activity, idea, or situation
e.g. The romance is peripheral to the main plot of the movie.
competitive: as good as or better than others
far-fetched: extremely unlikely to be true or to happen
e.g. The whole story sounds very far-fetched.

1)光伏电池和风涡轮机注解大概150年后,他们依然只发生世界七%的电力。可是,1些值得注意的政工正在发生。十几年前还地处财富连串的外围,它们以往的增速当先其他别的财富,它们下落的费用使其和化石燃料壹样有竞争力
BP,一家重油公司,猜想可再生财富将占今后20年海内外资源供应拉长的1/二。世界正在进入3个洁净,Infiniti和减价电力的时日不再是难以置信的。也是时间难题。

  1. There is a 20trn dollars hitch, though. To get from here to
    there requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades,
    to replace old smog-belching power plants and to upgrade the
    pylons and wires that bring electricity to consumers. Normally
    investors like putting their money into electricity because it
    offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
    more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
    source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
    future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
    need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
    market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

hitch: a small problem that makes something difficult or delays it
for a short time
e.g. In spite of some technical hitches, the first program was a
success.
e.g. The whole show went without a hitch .

二)然则,有多少个20万亿日币的小问题。从现行反革命到现在亟待在今后几10年多量的投资,以代表旧的喷出蒸发雾的发电厂和进步给买主带来电的电缆塔和电线。常常投资者喜欢把钱投入电力,因为它提供可相信的回报。但是,栗色财富有一个脏乱的秘闻。它配备得越来越多,它就会让来自别的来源的电力价格降低越来越多。那使得通向无碳的前程的衔接难以决定,在那里面,如若要让灯继续发光的话,许多发电技术,无论清洁照旧污染,须要保险毛利。除非商场是定点的,不然对行业的补贴只会抓牢。

  1. Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a
    reason to put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe
    and China, investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are
    cut back. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It
    is to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make
    better use of it.

An inconvenient
truth
是一部有关天气变化和全世界变暖的纪录片,维基上译作《难以忽视的本色》——译者注
put the brakes on sth: to stop something that is happening
cut back: If you cut back something such as expenditure or cut
back on it, you reduce it.
e.g. The Government has cut back on defence spending.

3)政策制定者已经把那些尴尬的本质看作停止可再生财富的多个缘由。在南美洲和中华的1部分地域,可再生财富的投资正在缓慢,因为补贴被削减。然则,消除方案不是更少的风和太阳能。而是重新考虑世界哪些为清洁财富定价,以便更好地动用它。

Shock to the system

  1. At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
    energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era.
    For much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by
    vertically integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s
    onwards, many of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised,
    so that market forces could determine where best to invest. Today
    only about 6% of electricity users get their power from monopolies.
    Yet everywhere the pressure to decarbonise power supply has
    brought the state creeping back into markets. This is disruptive
    for three reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other
    two are inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their
    intermittency and their very low running costs. All three help
    explain why power prices are low and public subsidies are
    addictive
    .
    4)其核心难题是,政党扶助的可再生财富已经被强加到二个见仁见智时代设计出的市集。在20世纪的多数时候,电力是由垂直整合的、国有控制股份的垄断企业创制和平运动输的。从20世纪80年间初始,个中许多独揽被打破,被私有化和趋势,使市镇力量能够决定最好投资方向。今日唯有约陆%的电力用户从垄断集团获取他们的电力。可是,随地去碳电力供应的下压力已经使得国家私行潜回市场。那是破坏性的,有八个原因。第2是补贴制度自作者。别的三个是风和太阳的性质固有的:它们的净化财富的肮脏秘密,泰王国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外国资本费。间歇性和它们好低的周转开销。那八个原因援助解释了干吗电力价格低和国有补贴停不下来

  2. First, the splurge of public subsidy, of about 800bn dollars
    since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble
    reasons—to counter climate change and prime the pump for new,
    costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar panels. But
    subsidies hit just as electricity consumption in the rich world
    was stagnating because of growing energy efficiency and the
    financial crisis. The result was a glut of power-generating
    capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities earn from
    wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

prime the pump: to encourage a business, industry, or activity to
develop by putting money or effort into it
slash: to greatly reduce an amount, price etc = cut
e.g. The workforce has been slashed by 50%.

5)首先,公共补贴的“挥霍”,自二零零六年来说约为柒仟亿日币,扭曲了市面。它是由于尊贵的说辞——为了对抗天气变化和鞭策升高新的、昂贵的技能,包含风力涡轮机和太阳电池板。不过,由于财富成效的不停拉长和金融风险的震慑,富裕国家的电力消耗墨守成规,补贴就在那儿出现。结果造成过量的发电能力,大幅度收缩了电力服务公司从周围电力市集赢得的纯收入,从而阻碍了投资。

  1. Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries of wind and
    sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
    turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the
    time. To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power
    plants, such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in when renewables
    falter. But because they are idle for long periods, they
    find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
    on, they require public funds.

kick in: If something kicks in, it begins to take effect.
e.g. As discounts kicked in, bookings for immediate travel rose by
15%.
falter: to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective
way
e.g. The economy is showing signs of faltering.
idle: not working or producing anything ≠ busy
e.g. The workers have been idle for the last six months.

六)其次,深草绿电源断断续续。风和阳光的变动莫测——
特别是在未有适用天气的国家——意味着涡轮机和太阳电池板仅在有个别光阴致电。为了保持电力流动,系统依靠常规的发发电站,例如煤、汽油或核能,在可再生财富减弱起到作用。不过因为她俩绵绵高居空闲场合,他们发觉很难吸引私人投资者。所以,为了保险灯亮着,他们须求公共资金财产。

  1. Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
    negligible or zero marginal running costs—because the wind and
    the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
    lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
    that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing
    power prices, and hence revenues for all.
    7)各个人都受到第多个因素的影响:可再生财富具有可忽略的照旧是零边界运转资本——因为风和太阳是免费的。在一个援救于以低于长期资本生生产能力源的市集中,风能和太阳能从运转费用更高的提供商(如燃煤电厂)那里拿走生意,下降电价,从而下降了全体人的收入。

Get smart

  1. The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these
    problems get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which
    was first to feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost
    decade” of falling returns, stranded assets and corporate
    disruption. Last year, Germany’s two biggest electricity providers,
    E.ON and RWE, both split in two. In renewable-rich parts of America
    power providers struggle to find investors for new plants. Places
    with an abundance of wind, such as China, are curtailing wind
    farms to keep coal plants in business.

捌)可再生财富的渗透率越高,这几个标题越严重——越发是在饱和市镇。在第三感受到影响的亚洲,电力服务集团饱受了收入降低、资金财产搁浅和商户瓦解的“失去的10年”。2018年,德意志联邦共和国两大电力供应商E.ON和RubiconWE两家都分拆成两家。在米利坚可再生财富丰盛的地带,电力供应商很难找到新工厂的投资者。拥有多量风力的地方,比如中华,正在削减风力发电站,以让燃煤电厂有生意可做。

  1. The corollary is that the electricity system is being
    re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
    public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
    renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
    using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
    politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
    blackouts. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
    cheap, dirty lignite caused emissions to rise, notwithstanding
    huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach the renewables
    revolution will stall.

9)推论是,电力系统正在被另行调整,因为投资重点去往受益于公私支撑的世界。抵触的是,那象征帮助可再生财富的国度更多,他们为寻常发电厂支付的也越来越多,来利用“体量支付”来缓解间歇性。实际上,革命家而不是市镇再一次决定哪些制止停电。他们不时犯错误:德国对方便、脏的褐煤的支撑引起排泄量上涨,即便其对可再生财富提供多量补贴。未有一种新的艺术,可再生能源革命将熄火

  1. The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem.
    Digitalisation, smart meters and batteries are enabling companies
    and households to smooth out their demand—by doing some
    energy-intensive work at night, for example. This helps to cope with
    intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants, which are easy to
    flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are high-voltage
    grids that can move excess power around the network more
    efficiently.

smooth out: If you smooth out a problem or difficulty, you solve
it, especially by talking to the people concerned.
e.g. It’s O.K. I smoothed things out.

10)好音信是,新技巧能够支持化解这么些标题。数字化,智能电衡量提示仪表和电池使公司和家中能够解决他们的必要——例如在夜间做1些能源密集型的行事。那促进应对间歇性供应。小型、模块化的发电站,简单灵活调节生产能力,变得更其受欢迎,高压电力网也得以更实用地在互连网上传输多余的电力。

  1. The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
    for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
    frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
    extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
    blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less
    electricity to balance the grid, just as they reward those who
    generate more of it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower
    depending how strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the
    time—a bit like an insurance policy. In short, policymakers should
    be clear they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable
    energy, but the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they
    should fix it.
    1一)更大的职分是重复规划电力市集,以展示对灵活供应和供给的新必要。他们应该更频繁地调动价格,以反映天气的不定。在万分稀罕的时候,高固定价格能够起功能来堵住停电。市场应该奖励愿意利用更少的电力的人来抵消电力网,正如他们奖励那个产生越来越多电力的人。账单能够被协会变成更高或更低,那有赖于客户多么明显地期望平素保险电力供应——有点像保单。由此可知,政策制定者应该驾驭,他们有标题,原因不是可再生财富,而是过时的电价制度。然后他们相应化解它。

原稿出处:军事学人杂志

译者:七呵夫

本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言之用,谢绝任何转发及用于其余商业用途。本译文所涉法律后果均由自身承担。本人同意简书平台在接获有关小说权人的打招呼后,删除作品。

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家用阳光能屋顶发电机的数量正在飞快扩大。那正是财富软禁理委员会员会(EOdysseyC)要求制订对各类人都同仁一视监禁的由来。

【2】wreck破坏,毁坏

China accounted for more than 40 percent of capacity growth in global
renewable energy in 2016, which was a record year for worldwide clean
energy additions, according to a new study.

越是多的泰王国公司行使分布式账本技术(DLT)帮助房主从屋顶太阳能系统中赚取。新一代区块链消费者通过在分流的点对点(p2p)财富市场上买卖剩余的太阳能电力财富,导致该国国有公用事业利润锐减。

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201六年,中中原人民共和国承受了多于4/10的芸芸众生可再生财富,依照一项新的求学展现,那是一项整个世界北京蓝财富合成物的记录。

换句话说,随着市集层面包车型地铁扩大,直接从国营公用事业公司购销的电力收缩,那代表传统电力行业的毛利减弱。

ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells【3】 and wind
turbines【4】
were invented, they still generate only 7% of the
world’s electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
peripheral to the energy system just over a decade ago, they are now
growing faster than any other energy source and their falling costs
are making them competitive with fossil fuels【5】. BP, an oil
firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer
far-fetched【6】 to think that the world is entering an era of
clean, unlimited and cheap power. About time, too.

The International Energy Agency, a Paris-based policy advisory
organization also known as the IEA, found that renewables accounted for
almost two-thirds of new power capacity last year. For the first time,
solar additions rose faster than any other fuel, including coal.

就在一年前,泰王国还遗弃了对非政党太阳能发电的严酷限定。据《巴塞罗那邮报》报导,泰王国政党同意家庭和店铺二〇一八年三月将太阳电池板产生的剩余能量出售给EGAT,但或然当年并从未料到p2p能源社区会那样高效地选用区块链技术呢。

【3】photovoltaic cell光伏电池

国际能源代理宗旨(IEA),一家在开设在巴黎的问讯集团,发现可再生产资料源占新财富的伍分3。有史以来第二遍,太阳能合成物发展的比包罗煤炭在内的任何燃料快。

英文原稿

【4】wind turbine风力涡轮机

Last year, new solar capacity around the world grew by 50 percent,
reaching more than 74 gigawatts, with China accounting for almost half
of that expansion. China is also the world market leader in hydropower,
bioenergy for electricity and heat, and electric vehicles.

New regulations drafted by Thailand officials demand that electricity
producers using blockchain be charged additional fees. Government
regulators fear an explosion in independent power generation will lead
to a reduction in revenue.

【伍】fossil fuel化石燃料,矿物燃料

二零一八年,环球太阳能容积拉长了六分之三,在中夏族民共和国负担了近乎的二分一的能量增进的意况下完成并跨越74千兆瓦。同时中华夏族民共和国也是世上用水力和生物能发电,热,和电力交通工具市集的决策者。

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) has demanded the
fees be paid as a subsidy for potentially destabilizing effects
blockchain technology brings, Nikkei Asian Review reports.

【6】far-fetched 牵强附会,难以置信的

Fatih Birol, executive director of the IEA, estimates that renewable
capacity will grow by about 1,000 GW-or half the current global
capacity in coal power-by 2022.

“The number of household solar rooftop power generators is increasing
rapidly. That’s why the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) needs to
develop regulation that is fair for everybody,” declared ERC member
Viraphol Jirapraditkul.

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IEA的实行管事人Fatih
Birol臆度在202贰年可再生产资料源覆盖面可以拉长10亿沃特t,可能未来天下用煤量的四分之贰。

There is a growing number of Thai companies leveraging distributed
ledger technology (DLT) to help homeowners profit from rooftop solar
systems. A new generation of blockchain-savvy consumers is muscling the
state-owned utilities out of profits by buying and selling surplus solar
energy on decentralized peer-to-peer (p2p) energy markets.

There is a $20trn hitch【7】, though. To get from here to there
requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades, to
replace old smog-belching【8】 power plants and to upgrade the
pylons【9】 and wires that bring electricity to consumers.
Normally investors like putting their money into electricity because
it offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

“What we are witnessing is the birth of a new era in solar photovoltaics
(panels),” Birol said. “We expect that solar photovoltaic capacity
growth will be higher than any other renewable technology through 2022.”

As the markets grow bigger, less electricity is being purchased directly
from the state-run utilities, meaning less profits for the traditional
power industry.

【7】hitch钩住(v),困难,故障,结(n);get hitched 结婚

“我们正在见证贰个新太阳能电板时期的诞生,“
Birol说,”大家预测在2022年,太阳能光板的能量会比其他任何可再生产资料源技术进步的快。“

Here, we are witnessing the decentralization of the energy sector, in
Thailand at least. Andreas Antonopolous thinks that this is one of the
“most important trends in human history.” Despite the benefits of p2p
energy markets, the fact that governments can just impose additional
fees to compensate puts a real dampener on things.

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In its report, the IEA labeled China as the world’s “undisputed
renewable growth leader”, driven by concerns about air pollution and
capacity targets that were outlined in the country’s 13th Five-Year
Plan(2016-20).

It was only a year ago that Thailand rolled back strict restrictions on
non-government solar power generation. Bangkok Post reported that the
Thai government allowed households and businesses to sell surplus energy
generated by solar panels back to EGAT last September, but I guess it
didn’t count on blockchain being adopted by the p2p energy community so
quickly.

【8】belch喷(大量)出,吐出,打嗝

IEA的告诉中,中华夏族民共和国被认为是社会风气上“毫无疑问的可再生能源的首长“,在对环境污染和能量指标的焦虑下,可再生产资料源的开发被标明在炎黄第3一个伍年陈设中。

译者:高旭

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The IEA report said China represents half of global solar photovoltaic
demand, and Chinese companies manufacture around 60 percent of the
world’s panels.

来源:THE NEXT WEB

【9】pylon电缆塔

IEA的告诉中还说中华表示了大地太阳能板的需要量,中国制作了天下百分之60左右的太阳能板。

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Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a reason to
put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe and China,
investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are cut
back【10】
. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It is
to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make better
use of it.

The IEA states that, due to the size of the market, policy developments
in China will have global implications for solar energy demand, supply,
and prices.

责编:

【10】cut back (on sth)削减,减少

IEA提议,由于市集的容量,中中原人民共和国策略的发展会对5洲的太阳能须求,供应和价格发生影响。

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The report identified the growing cost of renewable subsidies and grid
integration in China as potential barriers to further growth, and noted
that China’s renewable energy policies are being modified in order to
address these challenges.

Shock to the system

At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era. For
much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by vertically
integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s onwards, many
of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised, so that market
forces could determine where best to invest. Today only about 6% of
electricity users get their power from monopolies. Yet everywhere the
pressure to decarbonise【11】 power supply has brought the state
creeping back into【12】 markets. This is disruptive for three
reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other two are
inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their intermittency and
their very low running costs. All three help explain why power prices
are low and public subsidies are addictive.

告知中标明了华夏的可再生财富的补贴和网络集成的价钱不断进步,会对前途的开拓进取有神秘阻碍,并以为中夏族民共和国对可再生财富的政策应当依照这一个阻碍做出调整。

【11】decarbonise除碳,脱碳;de-去掉,除掉,……反义

China is moving away from its feed-in-tariff program to a quota system
with green certificates. The IEA states that these new policies,
together with power market reform, new transmission lines, and the
expansion of distributed generation, are expected to speed up the
deployment of solar energy.

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中原从停放电价项目升高到有杏黄证件的定额分配制。IEA认为那几个新的政策加上能量市镇的重新整理,新的电子通信传输线,和分布式发电的加码会加快太阳能能源的遍布。

【1贰】creep in/into sth 初步发出(或影响)

Under an accelerated case -where government policy lifts barriers to
growth-IEA analysis finds that global renewable capacity growth led by
China could be boosted by another 30 percent, totaling an extra 1,150 GW
by 2022.

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在当局政策消除前进阻碍的情况下,IEA分析发今后202贰年,中中原人民共和国指点的大地可再生财富的容积会在增添30%也正是一,150千伏安。

First, the splurge【13】 of public subsidy, of about $800bn
since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble reasons—
to counter climate change and prime the pump【14】 for new,
costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar
panels【15】
. But subsidies hit【16】 just as electricity
consumption in the rich world was stagnating because of growing energy
efficiency and the financial crisis. The result was a glut【17】
of power-generating capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities
earn from wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

Globally, falling auction prices for wind and solar projects have
contributed to the rise in new renewable energy capacity.

【13】splurge挥霍,乱花钱

从天下的角度来看,风力和太阳能项目竞价价格的下滑,对升官新的可再生财富容积做出了进献。

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Last month, the United Kingdom government held a wind farm auction at
which two companies agreed to build facilities for 57.50 pounds ($76)
per megawatt hour. The price is half what new wind farms were built for
just two years ago, and means off shore wind power will be cheaper than
nuclear energy in the UK for the first time.

【1四】prime the pump投资振兴

上个月,United Kingdom政坛进行了风力场的竞价会,两家商厦同意创立每时辰发生57.50英镑(约合7六美元)的百万沃特t的配备。这几个价格已经是两年前新建筑工程厂的1/贰。意味着在英国,海上风力发电第四回比原子能发电要惠及。

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Researchers from the UK and China recently announced five new projects
to develop the”next generation” of technology in wind and wave power.

【一五】solar panel太阳电池板

英帝国和中夏族民共和国的钻研人口前不久公布了多个新品类去商量“下三个一代“的风能和波浪能的科学技术。

【1陆】hit发生不良影响,危机

The UK’s Natural Environment Research Council and the Engineering and
Physical Sciences Research Council have pledged 4 million pounds in
funding during the next three years for the projects, which will also
receive funding from the  of China.

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大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国的当然能源研究委员会和工程及自然科委会在以后三年会为这些类别出资四百万卢比。中中原人民共和国国家自然科学基金委员会员会也会掏钱。

【17】glut供过于求,供应过剩

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Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries【18】 of wind
and sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the time.
To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power plants,
such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in【19】 when renewables
falter【20】. But because they are idle for long periods, they
find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
on, they require public funds.

【1八】vagaries阪上走丸

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澳门金沙4787.com官网,【1九】kick in开始生效

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【20】falter衰弱,衰退

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Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
negligible or zero marginal running costs【21】—because the wind
and the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing power
prices, and hence revenues for all.

【21】marginal
costs【会计学】边际花费(指因小额变动而致使总资金的呼应变更)

Gets mart

The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these problems
get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which was first to
feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost decade” of falling
returns, stranded assets and corporate disruption. Last year,
Germany’s two biggest electricity providers, E.ON and RWE, both split
in two. In renewable-rich parts of America power providers struggle to
find investors for new plants. Places with an abundance of wind, such
as China, are curtailing【22】 wind farms to keep coal plants in
business.

【22】curtail缩减,限制

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The corollary【23】 is that the electricity system is being
re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
blackouts【24】. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
cheap, dirty lignite【25】 caused emissions to rise,
notwithstanding huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach
the renewables revolution will stall.

【二三】corollary必然的结果(或结论)

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【二肆】blackout 断电,停电,灯火管制,音信封锁

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【25】lignite褐煤

The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem (see
page 16). Digitalisation, smart meters【26】 and batteries are
enabling companies and households to smooth out【27】 their
demand—by doing some energy-intensive work at night, for example. This
helps to cope with intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants,
which are easy to flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are
high-voltage grids that can move excess power around the network more
efficiently.

【二六】smart meter智能电度量提醒仪表

【27】smooth out

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【27】smooth sth (back/down/out) 使平滑,使平整

The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less electricity
to balance the grid, just as they reward those who generate more of
it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower depending how
strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the time—a bit like an
insurance policy【28】. In short, policymakers should be clear
they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable energy, but
the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they should fix
it.

【28】insurance policy保险单

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